The aim of this study was to characterize clinical features of patients with oromandibular
dystonia (OMD) who had temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms.
A retrospective chart review of patients seeking treatment at a tertiary-level orofacial
pain clinic from January 2015 through December 2020 was undertaken. The inclusionary
criteria consisted of a diagnosis of OMD (International Classification of Diseases,
Revision 10 code G24.4), which had been confirmed by a neurologist.
Eleven patients met the inclusion criteria. Focal dystonia and jaw deviation OMD were
the most frequent diagnoses. A dental procedure was a triggering or aggravating factor
in 36.4% of patients. All but 2 patients had a sensory trick, or tactile stimulus
to a particular body part, and approximately one-half of the patients used an oral
appliance as a sensory trick device. All but 1 patient had received a diagnosis of
TMD, with myofascial pain of the masticatory muscles being the most prevalent diagnosis.
Four patients had received a recommendation for orthodontic treatment. About one-half
of the patients had undergone 1 or more invasive dental or maxillofacial surgical
interventions to address their dystonia. Anxiety was the most common psychological
Because patients with OMD commonly experience TMD symptoms, they can receive a misdiagnosis
of TMD while the OMD is overlooked.
Owing to concomitant TMD symptoms, patients most often seek dental consultations and
undergo treatments such as orthodontic interventions and temporomandibular joint surgeries.
A dentist’s competency in recognizing these patients can prevent unnecessary procedures
and facilitate appropriate patient care.